Writing in the 21st Century: Money v. Media (Final)

Candice Robinson
December 10, 2015
Assignment #3 Final

Writing as a whole has been evolving over time. Decades upon decades of changing abilities and styles that has made the art of writing so great. But as the world becomes more and more reliant on get rich quick schemes as a form of income, writing has went from a craft to a money source. All forms of writing in the entertainment industry including music, internet and t.v. writing has been changed due to the greed around the world.

The creative platform of YouTube had changed to be displayed in a more commercialized way. YouTube, Morgan Brown, mad a video entitled ‘The truth about YouTube’s. In the video she goes on a rant about how YouTube has changed over the years. She is very detailed about how the YouTubers that grew, gained views and gained subscribers forgot what got them there in the first place.

This topic goes into writing in the 21st century because at first youtube was this random place with random people post things that they genuinely like or are interested in. Now it is a big competition for views and sponsors. The YouTubers gave up personal experience with their viewer to bond over the things they have in common or what connects them. They’ve traded that in for money and fame. This has lead to the writing in sketches and scripts of videos being over done and repetitive in the YouTube community. They have a ” this is what’s working so lets keep it working (Brown, 2014)” kind of attitude toward the future of YouTube. They will see a certain idea in a video that has gotten a lot of view and attention. It has been redone by hundreds of Youtubers but they still choose to do it. They don’t do it because they like it but because it’s what’s working; it’s what is getting these people views.

Rap music has become more about money and fame than the lyrical art. This style of music originated in New York in the late 1970’s. It was just DJ’s and MC’s using their talents to hype the crowd at a party or gathering. Rapping came about soon after as a creative outlet with rhymes about their lives and personal struggles. The people of this time also used music as an outlet for their feelings on political and economic issues such as the crack epidemic in the mid to late 1980’s. This style of music back then was used to convey a positive message to the people of their communities; “Crack is whack!”

A lot of rap music today is made by copying the styles of others to give them an immediate source of fans. Many rappers only speak on their own money and fame, never on real life problems like it was created for. Today rapping is mostly used as a quick way to gain fame and fortune. New mainstream rappers lack the creativity to earn their place in the “rap game”. A prime example of this is a song that has been sweeping the nation, ‘Watch Me (Whip/ Nae Nae) by Silento. In the song it references numerous dances that have already been made previous to the release of his song. The whole song is him repetitively saying the names of dances. None of the dance were made by him. The Nae Nae was invented by the rap group “We are Toonz”. Their song “Drop that Nae Nae” reached #18 on billboard charts. The whip dance, created by Hasani Buchanan, spread across the country in a matter of days. Other dances included in the song were from artists in the 2000’s such Soulja Boy, GS Boys, etc. All these dances and and songs have something in common: dances and popularity. By taking these popular dances and putting them all all together, there is no talent needed to be successful. Others agree with that statement as well. Even though the the charts in many different countries, some still understand the need for talent in this area. Buzz Feed named it one of the songs with the worst lyrics of the year. On Rate my music, it received 1.37 out of 5. This song is the epitome of cliche. Most of the comments below the video are viewers criticizing the song. Some comments go as far as calling the song “cancer”. Others saying things like ” this guy is a bad copy of soulja boy my God….” or “this is so stupid. Why am I here?….. lyrics are like something Rebecca Black wrote” and so on.

I believe that most lyrical writing in the 21st century will be along the lines of this song. It’s lack of creativity and actual work will be the guideline for radio rap music soon to come. Rap music today is losing touch with its roots. It’s humble beginnings has been lost in the mix of changing generations. In our world today, money is what we strive for. Fame is what we strive for. That’s why this art form is no longer art.

Producers of reality shows already get a bad rep for being in this form of t.v. in the first place. It makes it worse that the reality is no longer a reality . Shows like love and hip hop, Keeping Up With The Kardashians, and Bad Girls Club are examples of shows that have change from the power of money. The producers use the lives of others, twist the truth and make more money from the drama.

Keeping up with the Kardashians was found out for their reality fraud when writers were accused of ushering tabloid stories to spice up the show. For example, in 2012 a tabloid released a story about Bruce Jenner, more recently known as Caitlyn Jenner, was moving out of the Kardashian home due to marital issues. The season premiere of the show was based on the mutual agreement of the move out between Kris and Bruce. Also in early 2012, it was said that Khloe Kardashians father admitted to not being her real father. After that was annouced, previews to the show hinted at a DNA test for Khloe. This show tried to amp up the drama and anticipation to gain viewers and money, even if it meant manipulating people’s lives.

On shows like Bad Girls Club began as a drama oriented show, as every viewer knew this. In the beginning the show was for girls who had bad attitudes and wanted to change their lives for the better. But as time went on, the producers noticed that there was much more of a response to the arguments and almost fights on the show than there was a reaction to the real life changing part. What people didn’t know was that the actual fighting part wasn’t allowed. The show always built up the anticipation of fighting but they never actually crossed that line. A few years and seasons into the show,that line was crossed.

Former BGC actress, Tanisha Thomas, explains the change she has seen in the show since she has been there. “On my season, if you hit someone you went home… [now] I know that there is security and I believe a medic if needed. (Thomas, 2012)” They’re allowing drama to cross the line into physical violence for the sake of ratings and money. The viewers no longer have to anticipate physical violence because now it is allowed. The writers of this show have sold out. A show used to help people turned into a fighting fest.

Today’s entertainment industry has turned writing into a never-ending quest for fame. The love of creating a solid piece of work is almost gone. It’s all about making a solid million from that work now.

Bibliography:

Brown, Morgan. “THE TRUTH ABOUT YOUTUBE.” YouTube. 30 July 2015. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

“Hip Hop Music.” – Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

Ogilvie, Jessica. “Breaking: ‘Keeping Up With The Kardashians’ Is Scripted.” LAist. Art & Entertainment, 11 June 2013. Web. 14 Dec. 2015

Scott, Tracy. “Tanisha Makes No Excuses for ‘Bad Girls’.” S2SMagazine RSS. 12 June 2012. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

“Silentó- Watch Me (Whip/Nae Nae) (Official).” YouTube. SilentóVevo, 25 June 2015. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

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Writing in the 21st Century:Money vs. Media (Rough Draft)

The creative platform of YouTube had changed to be displayed in a more commercialized way. YouTube, Morgan Brown, mad a video entitled ‘Ve truth about YouTube’s. In the video she goes on a rant about how YouTube has changed over the years. She is very detailed about how the YouTubers that grew, gained views and gained subscribers forgot what got them there in the first place.

This topic goes into writing in the 21st century because at first youtube was this random place with random people post things that they genuinely like or are interested in. Now it is a big competition for views and sponsors. The YouTubers gave up personal experience with their viewer to bond over the things they have in common or what connects them. They’ve traded that in for money and fame. This has lead to the writing in sketches and scripts of videos being over done and repetitive in the YouTube community. They have a ” this is what’s working so lets keep it working (Brown, 2014)” kind of attitude toward the future of YouTube. They will see a certain idea in a video that has gotten a lot of view and attention. It has been redone by hundreds of Youtubers but they still choose to do it. They don’t do it because they like it but because it’s what’s working; it’s what is getting these people views.

Rap music has become more about money and fame than the lyrical art. This style of music originated in New York in the late 1970’s. It was just DJ’s and MC’s using their talents to hype the crowd at a party or gathering. Rapping came about soon after as a creative outlet with rhymes about their lives and personal struggles. The people of this time also used music as an outlet for their feelings on political and economic issues such as the crack epidemic in the mid to late 1980’s. This style of music back then was used to convey a positive message to the people of their communities; “Crack is whack!”

A lot of rap music today is made by copying the styles of others to give them an immediate source of fans. Many rappers only speak on their own money and fame, never on real life problems like it was created for. Today rapping is mostly used as a quick way to gain fame and fortune. New mainstream rappers lack the creativity to earn their place in the “rap game”. A prime example of this is a song that has been sweeping the nation, ‘Watch Me (Whip/ Nae Nae) by Silento. In the song it references numerous dances that have already been made previous to the release of his song. The whole song is him repetitively saying the names of dances. None of the dance were made by him. The Nae Nae was invented by the rap group “We are Toonz”. Their song “Drop that Nae Nae” reached #18 on billboard charts. The whip dance, created by Hasani Buchanan, spread across the country in a matter of days. Other dances included in the song were from artists in the 2000’s such Soulja Boy, GS Boys, etc. All these dances and and songs have something in common: dances and popularity. By taking these popular dances and putting them all all together, there is no talent needed to be successful. Others agree with that statement as well. Even though the the charts in many different countries, some still understand the need for talent in this area. Buzz Feed named it one of the songs with the worst lyrics of the year. On Rate my music, it received 1.37 out of 5. This song is the epitome of cliche.

I believe that most lyrical writing in the 21st century will be along the lines of this song. It’s lack of creativity and actual work will be the guideline for radio rap music soon to come. Rap music today is losing touch with its roots. It’s humble beginnings has been lost in the mix of changing generations. In our world today, money is what we strive for. Fame is what we strive for. That’s why this art form is no longer art.

Producers of reality shows already get a bad rep for being in this form of t.v. in the first place. It makes it worse that the reality is no longer a reality . Shows like love and hip hop, Keeping Up With The Kardashians, and Bad Girls Club are examples of shows that have change from the power of money. The producers use the lives of others, twist the truth and make more money from the drama.

Keeping up with the Kardashians was found out for their reality fraud when writers were accused of ushering tabloid stories to spice up the show. For example, in 2012 a tabloid released a story about Bruce Jenner, more recently known as Caitlyn Jenner, was moving out of the Kardashian home due to marital issues. The season premiere of the show was based on the mutual agreement of the move out between Kris and Bruce. Also in early 2012, it was said that Khloe Kardashians father admitted to not being her real father. After that was annouced, previews to the show hinted at a DNA test for Khloe. This show tried to amp up the drama and anticipation to gain viewers and money, even if it meant manipulating people’s lives.

On shows like Bad Girls Club began as a drama oriented show, as every viewer knew this. In the beginning the show was for girls who had bad attitudes and wanted to change their lives for the better.but as time went on, the producers noticed that there was much more of a response to the arguments and almost fights on the show than there was a reaction to the real life changing part. What people didn’t know was that the actual fighting part wasn’t allowed. The show always built up the anticipation of fighting but they never actually crossed that line. A few years and seasons into the show,that line was crossed.

Former BGC actress, Tanisha Thomas, explains the change she has seen in the show since she has been there. “On my season, if you hit someone you went home… [now] I know that there is security and I believe a medic if needed.” They’re allowing drama to cross the line into physical violence for the sake of ratings and money. The viewers no longer have to anticipate physical violence because now it is allowed. The writers of this show have sold out. A show used to help people turned into a fighting fest.

Final Draft

The concept of 1984 has been remixed many times. The original text was a book. That book was then turned into a movie. The 1984 Apple commercial uses the movies concept to set themselves apart from competitors. The anti-Clinton campaign used that commercial as a type of opponent slandering. These examples use remix because they all take a piece of the original text to create a whole new text. They also were able to change the arrangement and kairos to give each text a different meaning.

The 1984 book was turned into a movie. This means that the 1984 movie was a remix in itself. The scene in the film that everyone was most intrigued by was the Two Minutes Hate. This scene differed from the book in many ways. For example, the book was able to describe in great detail what was happening during the two minutes hate. In the movie you could barely hear what people were saying but in the book, because it was written, you know what was said by the people of the party. Also the deep thought within the screen. The book was very descriptive about the feelings Winston had during the gathering. It told what he was thinking had how he was feeling but in the movie you had to make those guesses about how he felt on your own.

The movie 1984 had a strong sense of kairos. The book was published in 1949 but speaks upon event that “happened” in 1984. The movie gives off kairos from its release in the year 1984. I think that the movie also loses some kairos because it was released in late 1984. If it was made available earlier in the year, it would have more of a relevance to the time period. It would give off the futuristic feel the was originally given off by the book. Since the year was already more than half way over, there’s no way those events from the movie could happen in the time left in that year.

The 1984 movie is arrangement in chronological order, in which each event in the text happens, just like the 1984 book. The movie is not the exact same as the book in terms of how each thing happens but it is still arranged the same was. Also the arrangement of the scene was slightly different when you look at the detail put forth in each text. For starters, in the movie it looks like the party gathered in a theater or auditorium style room. In the book, there were just chairs set up in rows in front of the screen. “…, where Winston worked, they were dragging the chairs our of the cubicles and grouping them in the centre of the hall opposite the big telescreen…(Orwell, 1949)” Another difference that I found between the movie and the book is the seating arrangement of Winston and his the dark-haired girl. In the book, it says that the sandy-haired woman was sitting next to Winston and the dark-haired woman was sitting behind her. But in the movie, the seating arrangement wasn’t shown. The dark-haired woman was sitting a few rows ahead of Winston.

The 1984 Apple commercial remixes the concept of the movie 1984. They took the idea of a dictatorship and a dystopian future and changed its meaning. In the commercial there were what I believe to be metaphoric representations of the time period. IBM was the only big named computer producer. This gave them so much control over the customers and also the small, growing businesses who were willing to sell out. That being said, IBM is represented by the big brother figure on the screen. The figure was controlling the people (the customers and small businesses) with his words. He was grouping everyone together as if they were all the same. “We are one people… one cause.(Ibermodels, 2011)” The woman who ran in with the hammer was no other than a representation of Apple. It’s not hard to draw the computer after you see the Macintosh computer on the shirt that she is wearing. Her part in the commercial was to thrown the hammer at the screen, breaking the trance like state of all the people. This is what Apple planned to do: use the Macintosh computer to bring diversity and options to the realm of technology. The fact the a women was used to represent Apple is another symbol of diversity.

The 1984 Apple commercial have a good sense of kairos. Steve Jobs’ choice of release was very time convenient. This situation with Apple and IBM is the same as what’s going on in the movie. IBM won the loyalty of the people and used that to control them, just like the movie. The fact that it was shown at the super bowl, with 77 million viewers, is a perk in itself. There were 72000 computers sold in the first 100 days. Another reason this text has developed Mario’s is the timing in comparison with the movie. The relationship between the two text would cause people to come to their senses about what IBM is trying to do and hopefully get them more customers. In the 1983 Apple keynote address, Steve said, “Dealers initially welcoming IBM with open arms now fear an IBM dominated and controlled future.(Jobs,1983)”

The 1984 Apple commercial was arranged slightly different from the 1984 movie scene. On one hand the two are very similar, visually and through its audio. The people in both videos are dressed the same and just visually look the same. The big faced figure on the screen looked the same. The difference in this was that in the Apple video big brother was speaking on how they are all one and stand for one thing. The 1984 figure was the enemy. Also the audio in the videos are different. The Apple video is persuading the group that the big brother figure is good and only wants the best for them. It is essentially telling them they are “secure from pest.(Ibermodels, 2011)”

The 1984 anti-Clinton video remixes the visual styles of the 1984 Apple commercial. Both of the videos have the same visual structure. The anti-Clinton video changed the images on the screen, the logo on the woman’s shirt and the ending narration. Everything else is the exact same. I’ll say they this is a perfect example of a remix. It uses the almost exact visuals but the meaning and message is different. The big brother figure is obviously Hillary, the people are her supporters and the woman with the hammer is Obama. Just like the Apple commercial, the logo on the shirt the Obama campaign logo. This video is trying to display how Hillary is manipulating the people. “… be a part of a team, the American team.(ParkRidge47, 2007)” But the Obama campaign can promise individuality, just like the Apple commercial. “And you’ll see why 2008 won’t be like 1984.(ParkRidge47, 2007)”

The 1984 anti-Clinton video also has a sense of kairos. It is almost election time. People are trying to do their best to make sure their campaign or their favorable candidates campaign is stronger. The filmmaker recognized the growth of the internet and decided to use that as a platform rather than using t.v. or cable. The filmmakers name was Phil Dr Vellis, who did some work on the Obama campaign. At the time of the videos release, Hillary was the front-runner in the democratic party. This ad ended up being a crucial part in Barack Obama’s success.

The arrangement of the 1984 anti-Clinton video was almost exactly the same as the 1984 Apple commercial. From the marching people to the big television screen, the video arrangement is the same. There are a few difference that I spot though. The big brother figure was change to be Hillary Clinton. Also the woman’s shirt was changed from a Macintosh logo to a Obama campaign logo. She was also wherein a iPod and earphones in this video. I perceived this a a sign of change. This would make a lot of since because Obama’s campaign slogan in 2008 was “Change”.

1984 has become a model for many remixes over the years. Each one had a different meaning or a different style that made their text stand out.

Citations:

Dernbach, C. (2008, August 9). 1983 Apple Keynote – The “1984” Ad Introduction – Mac History. Retrieved November 22, 2015, from http://www.mac-history.net/computer-history/2008-08-09/1983-apple-keynote-the-1984-ad-introduction

Ibermodels. (2011, Oct 6). Apple Macintosh’s Superbowl Advert- 1984 [Ridley Scott][Video file]. Retrieved from https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=OwT6mgXsZvU

ParkRidge47. (2007, Mar 5). Vote Different [Video file]. Retrieved from https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=6h3G-lMZxjo

Orwell, G. (1949). Nineteen eighty-four, a novel. New York: Harcourt, Brace

Rough rough ROUGH draft.

An affordance of the podcast is the descriptive language that they have to use to convey a certain image that they want you to see. In the podcast, Lauren Ober describes the original access sign by saying, “… The formal name of the blue and white logo of the stick figure in the wheel chair.” By it being an international symbol, we automatically know what she is describing. Her very detailed wording helps paint a picture in your mind. The emotion the narrator puts into each word is another affordance of the audio. When Roman was explaining how the international symbols are recognized all over the world he used a lot of detail. When we look at those symbols we know what they mean no matter where we are. The tone and emotion in his voice and the background music gave the audio more depth. In a general sense, the act of story telling somehow always benefits the audience and allows us to get engaged in what is being told. Also, some people are better audio learners and by having this in two different modes, it appeals to more groups of people. It also helps people retain the information. An affordance of the article is being able to mix multiple forms of media to help the reader better understand the text. By the article being a visual form of text, the author is able to use other visual aids to enhance the text. After the 7th paragraph, there’s the image of the new access logo. Each part of the logo has been labeled and later is described and expands on home each feature has been enhanced. In the article, #5 (the legs) says, “The leg has been moved forward to allow for more space between it and the wheel which allows for better readability and cleaner application of icon as a stencil.” Because the article involves alphabetic text, it helps the author with the need to cite where they found key parts which emphasized its importance. In the 7th paragraph, it talks about the American’s With Disabilities Act. It says, “Modeled on the Civil Rights Act of ADA:….” then proceeds to state the law. By the podcast previously being in the form of alphabetic text, a script, it helped with the arrangement and flow of the audio. In the article, there are certain words and names that are bold and they are colored. This is and example of one of the ways the author uses alphabetic text to engage the reader and point out important names and details. For example, Lauren Ober’s name is in bold and red in the second paragraph. This indicates that she is speaking in the article. Under all of the pictures, there are citations giving credit to those who provided the images. There are also captions underneath each image to describe what is shown in each image. The original access symbols is captioned, “The international symbol of access.” The new access image is captioned, “A proposal for a revised icon would portray a more dynamic wheelchair based image.” The audio can be shared with the share button to various forms of social media including facebook, Twitter, many different blogging sites, etc. The podcast is embedded into the article but was originally published on sound cloud. This gives the audio two different audiences that can spread the text. The audio also has two sets of share buttons, one from soundcloud and one from Slate. This can greatly increase the circulation. The podcast also has the ability to be playing outlined for multiple people at a time. This can also increase spreading of the audio. Over time people started to feel that the original logo was out dated so they changed it to something more empowering. People started to redesign the logo and paint also painting over the old one. In the article there are images of people coming together to paint over the original blue and white logo with the redesigned orange one. Because of the need for change in the design of the logo, it needed an article to get the message across and give information  The logo being changed as well. it gained reporters journalists and the people of many communities to spread the topic along from person to person. In the article it talks about how the topic is “grassroots” and that the it needs to grow into an international issue. With this in mind this change of the logo needs to spread not just locally or nationally but also internationally through its circulation. For image there are several photos included in the article that were not included in the podcast because it’s obviously not a visual form of text. The podcast does give very detailed explanations about what the logo looks like but you can’t actually see it. In the article, with the photos we can see, we cannot only share them but see what the article is specifically talking about, what the new logo design looks like and as well as a reminder of what the original logo design looks like. We also see in the photo on the article a diagram of what the new logo looks like, how each part has been changed and how it effects the overall design. When we see the sign of the original logo design being painted over with the new logo design, we see change. With out the photo we would not be able to have a clear  idea of what the whole article was trying to say. During the podcast the narrator, Roman Mars, speaks in such descriptive language the reader is able to visualize what is being said. Going back to the article, the bold colored words when clicked on takes you directly to the website to elaborate on the topic included in the article. For example, when you click on the “rehabilitation international” link it takes you directly to that website. Another would be, if you were to  click on Lauren Ober’s name it take you to her personal Twitter account. It works for circulation became you are lead to multiple places that gives you more information with which you can expand upon or share with others. This also works with affordance by it sending you to a more reliable source allowing you to see how they word certain ideas and gave more important information. When you first open the article, the first thing you see is the big bold title. The title helps the reader understand what the article is going to be about. By the title being in the form of a question it gets the reader thinking about how the question will be answered after they finish reading. Going back to alphabetic text, you can see that the font is changed in size when going into detail about certain topics.

Affordances, Alphabetic Text, Circulation, and Image

Affordances:

When writing, using affordably help you understand which form of text is right for certain topics. For example, the Fall 2015 Ralph Lauren Fashion Show. No one wants to sit and read a long, drawn out, 50 page article with abnormal fashion terminology. By using image/video, it gives everyone a chance to interpret the garments the way they want and give the piece a easier and more understandable description.

Alphabetic Text:

Using alphabetic rescan be more understandable than other types of writing. By using words it leaves no room for misunderstanding through accents, word pronunciation, etc. A youtube, Miranda Sings, has a very unique voice that can make you confused about what she’s saying. In her music video, Where My Bae’s At, she uses subtitles to eliminate that problem which makes her wonderful creations accessible to everyone.

 Circulation:

The circulation of writing, let’s the author know what qualities make text spreadable. Some text is written to move quickly from one reader to the next. The others are meant to be longer lasting. A case on extreme circulation is Ellen’s super selfie at the Oscars in 2014. The tweet is the most retreated tweet in Twitter history reaching 3.34 million retreats. By having so many celebrities in one photo, it basically touched base with so many fan groups.

Image:

Image plays a big role in so many different fields. In the case of education, diagrams play a big role in the learning process for visual learners. For people who take classes on the human body, textbooks with photos and diagrams are a big help for studying.

Words

The idea from the podcast that was the most interesting to me was how words make only sense when there is an image attached to it. The story at the beginning, about the man who was deaf, was very moving. The way that he began to learn the different names of every object was amazing. I never thought about how detached from the world and everything in everyday life  a deaf person could be. Before he knew what language was he would just imitate what others would say. He knew that people said things but he didn’t know exactly what it was. When his mind was opened up to names and meanings and words his whole life changed.

In the video, Words, producers used the concept of word association to make us think of the word for the image being shown. When images began to pop up on the screen, you didn’t really get what is happening. But as it goes on you start to think: “ok it’s a plane…. it’s a bird….it’s a fly! Oh, shit! All of those things fly!!!!! I get it!” It’s crazy how your brain can change images to to words and even change words to images. Some might take a little longer to process. For example, in my head, at first I was thinking,” why are they showing us the crotch of someones……” then I thought, “oh yeah… that’s a fly too!” The mind is an amazing thing. The way our minds transfers information from one media to the next so fast is amazing.

“Why Media Spreads” by Jenkins, Ford, Green

Spreadability

Spreadability is what helps media spreading easier, what makes spreading happen and what makes people want to spread certain text. The writer merged the meaning of “spreadablility” with the meaning of “stickiness” ( a term used in Malcolm Gladwell’s The Tipping Point, 2000 ) by saying,”In short, to Gladwell, sticky content is material that people want to spread” ( pg. 140 ). The term “stickiness” focuses on catching and keeping the audiences attention. “Spreadability” refers to how and why they share it with others. examples of tools for readability include: social media, e-mail, website, phones, computers, etc.

Participatory Culture

Participatory culture is the interaction between fan groups and communities that spread media. This term, by Henry Jenkins, was used as a way to decide if people were fans and helped the circulation of text or if the just looked and went about their day. Fans are the biggest part of media circulation. It is the authors responsible to see the public “not as simply consumers of preconstructed messages but as people who are shaping, sharing, reframing, and remixing media content in ways which might not have been previously imagined”(pg.138). This helped me realize that a writer is nothing without its reader.

Papyrus and Marble

Papyrus and marble represents how easily or difficult media is transported from one place to another and all around the world. Marble assumes the role of media that is to difficult to transport but it also preserves information. Papyrus plays the part of media that is able to move across the world quicker and easier. “Innis argues that ongoing tension between durability and mobility- between marble and papyrus- has determined what kinds of information gained visibility in its own time what has been preserved for subsequent generations”(pg. 165).
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